MeV Gamma-Rays From Supernovae


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Contact: F.X.Timmes
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Gamma-Ray Line Signals from Supernovae within 100 Mpc (1997)

The average number of supernovae per year detectable by $\gamma$-rays emitted during the decay of $^{56}$Ni to $^{56}$Fe is estimated in this article for galaxies within 100 Mpc as a function of limiting sensitivity using standard supernova yields and the Sternberg and Asiago supernova catalogs.

An instrument having a broad line (5000 km s$^{-1}$) sensitivity of $2 \times 10^{-6}$ $\gamma$ s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$ should detect a minimum of \hbox{1.0 $\pm$ 0.5} Type Ia supernova per year, and observe all Type Ia events from the Virgo, Fornax, and possibly the Hydra galaxy clusters. Roughly 10-30% of all Type Ia supernova within 100 Mpc are detectable at this flux sensitivity. Instruments having broad line flux sensitivities larger than $1.5 \times 10^{-5}$ $\gamma$ s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$ will probably only detect rare Type Ia supernovae within 10 Mpc, such as SN 1972E or SN 1991T. Flux sensitivities of $\simeq 2 \times 10^{-6}$ $\gamma$ s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$ to intermediate width $\gamma$-ray lines should enable the detection of a minimum of 0.2 $\pm$ 0.2 Type Ib/c supernova per year, and easily allow events similar to SN 1983N and SN 1985F to be seen. Instruments of the near future will not detect the narrow line $\gamma$-rays from any Type II supernovae that originate beyond the Local Group of galaxies. These number and rate estimates provide guidelines for the design of future $\gamma$-ray missions.

Supernova Type Ia

Type 1a SN per year
How far away are they?
Expected fluxes
Type Ia detection rates

Supernova Type Ib/c

Type 1b/c SN per year
How far away are they?
Expected fluxes
Type Ib/c detection rates

Supernova Type II

Type II SN per year
How far away are they?
Expected fluxes
Type II detection rates